Unwanted body and face hair is referred to as excess hair. Hair grows on nearly every area of our bodies, although some people have more than others. For both men and women, excess hair can feel embarrassing, distressing, and difficult to deal with.

Excessive hair (especially in women) might signify a hormonal problem like polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Excess hair growth can occur for no apparent reason, especially in skin types from the Mediterranean, Middle East, and South Asia. It’s also possible that it’s inherited.

Read on to discover more about facial hair removal for women and what your options are.

Why You May Have Facial Hair As A Woman

Higher-than-normal amounts of androgens, particularly testosterone, cause women to grow excessive body or facial hair. All women produce low quantities of androgens but can overproduce them due to certain medical disorders, such as PCOS. 

PCOS (polycystic ovarian syndrome) is a condition in which a woman’s ovaries don’t release eggs regularly and she has high levels of “male hormones” (androgens). 

Your doctor may diagnose you with PCOS if you have at least two of these symptoms; however, it’s worth noting that you might have PCOS without having cysts on your ovaries. Rest assured that androgens are present in all women. It’s the shifting levels that can be problematic.

PCOS affects each woman differently and should be diagnosed by your GP. If you do have PCOS, you will most likely have one or more of the following symptoms:

PCOS has also been associated with a higher risk of other health problems later in life, including type 2 diabetes and high cholesterol.

Excessive hair growth on the face and body can be caused by high levels of male hormones (androgens) associated with PCOS. This can be embarrassing and difficult to deal with, and some women experience anxiety and depression as a result. Waxing and shaving regularly can irritate the delicate skin of the face, causing ingrown hairs and even hyperpigmentation.

Permanent hair removal methods may be a good fit for you if you’re experiencing unwanted facial hair growth. 

Facial Hair Removal Methods 

If you’re bothered by the hairs that grow on your face, there are a few methods you can follow to remove them. 

Shaving is one of the most popular hairs removal methods. It’s fast and easy to remove hair and get on with your day, but the results aren’t permanent or long-lasting. You will remain hairless for one to three days before you have to shave again. 

Tweezing is an effective and inexpensive way to remove facial hair, but it’s hard to use this for a large skin area. Epilation works similar to tweezing, but the tool will remove multiple hairs simultaneously and remove them right from the root. As the whole hair is removed, it takes longer to grow back. Some have experienced hairlessness for up to 4 weeks. 

Whether at home or at a salon, waxing is an effective way to remove all the hair in a certain area. Waxing is uncomfortable and sometimes painful, but it produces long term results similar to epilating. 

These creams have chemicals, such as barium sulfide, sodium, and titanium dioxide, that break down the proteins in your hair, so it dissolves and washes away. These ingredients are usually safe, though there is a risk of reaction. 

Similar to tweezing, this method uses a thread that pulls and twists the hair until it lifts from the follicle. There is no risk of a skin reaction with threading, though you may experience some pain. It’s best to go to a professional as this technique requires skill. 

Short pulses of light energy are used in laser hair removal to damage or kill the root of each hair follicle, preventing regrowth. The hairs will get softer and finer as you go through your treatment programme, and growth will slow down. Laser hair removal for women with PCOS is by far the most efficient treatment to help manage the symptoms of this condition. 

Is Laser The Best Method For Hair Removal?

If you’re wondering how to get rid of facial hair, when compared to other methods of hair removal used on the face, such as waxing, threading, shaving, or utilising hair removal lotions, laser hair removal can save time for clients who want to remove facial hair permanently for aesthetic reasons .

With laser hair removal, you might expect a permanent reduction of hair of up to 90%.

If hairs grow back during the treatment, it will be finer, softer and lighter. Ingrown hairs, shaving irritation, and stubble can all be avoided with laser hair removal. Many other methods of hair removal methods result in hair growing back swiftly, typically within days. Long-term outcomes from laser hair removal will save you both time and money in the long run.

From full-face laser hair removal to specified areas such as upper lip laser hair removal, 

facial laser hair removal can be used to treat the following areas: upper lip, chin, jawline, cheeks, sideburns, eyebrows, ear lobes, half face and full face.

Key Takeaways 

Find your nearest clinic and arrange a consultation with one of our dermatologists for advice on how laser hair removal can work for you.

A mole is a small brown or black patch on the skin, similar to a freckle. Most people have moles, and they’re usually not a problem. Generally, they are round or oval-shaped with a smooth edge; moles can be flat or raised and smooth or rough. Sometimes moles have hair(s) growing from them.  

Melanocytes, which create the colour or pigment in your skin, form clusters of skin cells that cause moles. The average person has 10 to 40 moles on their body, but if one of them changes, it could be malignant. .

Spotting a malignant mole early can save your life. There is a 99%, 5-year survival rate for patients whose melanoma is detected early. This drops to 66% if cancer has reached the lymph nodes, 27% if it has already spread to distant organs. 

Read on to discover more about mole removal and if it will leave a scar.

Can You Remove Moles Without Scarring?

The amount of scarring you get from a mole removal will depend on the process you have undertaken to remove that mole. There are three main ways to remove moles professionally. These are: 

If your mole is small, laser treatment can be used to eliminate it. Laser mole removal uses light energy to break down the pigment within the mole. Bursts of laser radiation are aimed at the mole during the treatment, breaking down the skin cells that make it up.

The mole will vanish immediately following your surgery, leaving only a faint red mark where it was previously. The region will heal in the same way that a graze would, taking 10 to 14 days to develop a smooth, pinkish mark that will vanish after a few weeks.

Because there is minimal chance of scarring, this procedure is a suitable choice for removing a mole off the face.

Under local anaesthetic (this numbs the treated area), moles that protrude from the skin can be ‘shaved’ away.  This is typically done with a scalpel and is a reasonably painless and straightforward procedure.

This simple operation is far less invasive than a full-thickness skin excision because it doesn’t require sutures or stitches. Once the mole is removed, it will be sent to a laboratory to be looked at in detail in order to check for any abnormalities or cancers.

Your doctor will instruct you about keeping the area of skin dry for 24 hours and when to change or remove the bandage. There may be a pink mark on your skin where the mole used to be, but this will diminish with time.

Some moles, especially those that are bigger, may require excision. This operation is done with a local anaesthetic and ends with a tiny stitch in the skin.

During the procedure the entire mole and a tiny portion of the surrounding skin will be removed, and the mole will be taken away to be examined by specialists in a laboratory.

A small number of stitches may be required to close the wound, and the region will be bandaged in a sterile bandage. There will be a little scar that will diminish over time.

Sk:n clinics offer all of these treatments to remove moles. 

The best way to remove moles without scarring? Probably the laser removal treatment, though this won’t be the right choice for potentially cancerous moles. 

Removing A Mole Yourself 

When you cut a mole off yourself, you risk leaving a visible, permanent scar where the mole used to be, increasing your risk of infection tenfold, especially if you don’t use a sanitised tool.

You won’t be able to tell if the mole is cancerous if you remove it yourself. You risk getting melanoma, which can spread throughout your body and cause life-threatening cancer; if you don’t have a doctor or dermatologist, test the mole that has been removed.

How To Prevent Mole Removal Scarring 

Whether it’s from an intensive surgery or a simple scrap, all wounds to the skin can leave a scar because this is your body’s natural way of healing a wound. However, there are some steps you can take to reduce scarring to your body after your mole removal treatment. 

A fresh wound is more likely to darken and become discoloured if exposed regularly to sun (UV) light. If you’re going to be spending time outside, always cover your scar with strong sun cream and, where possible, wear sun-protective clothing. 

Skin wounds heal better when they’re moist, whereas dry wounds take longer to heal and are more likely to fade. An antibiotic ointment under the bandage will help to reduce scar formation when your wound is still healing. 

After your sutures are gone, and your scabs have disappeared, you can start to massage the scar. Never pull the scab off before it is ready; this will worsen scarring. Use two fingers to rub circles on the scar and the skin around it, starting with light pressure. This will ensure a healthy supply of collagen is healing the skin. 

A lot of movement and stretching of the skin could lead to a longer healing time and, in turn, a bigger scar. Take care as much as possible with your scar and the skin around it to ensure there’s less pulling in your wound. 

Key Takeaways 

Find your nearest clinic and arrange a consultation with one of our dermatologists for advice on how and when to remove your mole(s).

A mole is a small brown or black patch on the skin, similar to a freckle. Most people have moles, and they’re usually not a problem. Usually, they are round or oval-shaped with a smooth edge; moles can be flat or raised and smooth or rough. Sometimes moles have hair(s) growing from them.  

They are caused by skin cells that form in clusters called ‘melanocytes’, which produce a dark colour on your skin. Typically, people have between 10 to 40 harmless moles on their body. 

Read on to learn more about the mole removal treatments and discover which is the best for you. 

Laser Mole Removal 

If your mole is small, you can have it removed with laser treatment. Laser mole removal uses light energy to break down the pigment within the mole. This removal method is a good option for removing a mole from the face as there is less risk of scarring.

A laser mole removal appointment should take around 30 minutes to complete; this is mainly spent discussing the procedures and the aftercare; the laser treatment only takes about 5 minutes for each mole. 

During the procedure, bursts of light radiation are directed towards the mole, breaking down the skin cells it is composed of. The precision of the laser means that only the mole is removed, and the surrounding area is left unchanged and healthy. 

This procedure should only be used on moles where no biopsy is needed, as this method doesn’t produce a sample that can be used to test for melanoma. 

Laser Mole Removal Healing Time 

Immediately after your procedure, the mole will be gone leaving only a small red mark where the mole was beforehand. The area will heal similarly to a graze, taking around 10 to 14 days to achieve a smooth, pink-ish mark, which will fade after a few weeks. 

It’s best to avoid applying make-up to the affected area until the scab has dropped off and the site is smooth, usually after the 10 to 14 days mentioned above . This is the least “invasive” mole removal procedure. 

Shave Mole Removal 

Moles that protrude from the skin can be ‘shaved’ off under local anaesthetic (this numbs the treated area). This is usually done using a scalpel and is relatively straightforward and painless. 

Your doctor will inject a local anaesthetic, which not only prevents you from feeling pain, it will cause the mole to rise upwards, making it easier to remove. Then they will cut the growth off with a sharp razor, using multiple horizontal incisions. You may feel a slight pushing sensitivity as the cuts are made, but you shouldn’t feel any pain. 

After the procedure, your doctor may apply a chemical, such as aluminium chloride hexahydrate to keep your skin from bleeding. They will then apply a soothing ointment to encourage healing and cover the wound with a sterilised bandage. 

This simple procedure doesn’t require sutures or stitches and is much less invasive than a full-thickness skin excision. Once the mole is removed, it will be sent to a laboratory to be looked at in detail in order to check for any abnormalities or cancers. 

Shave Mole Removal Healing Time

Your doctor will ask you to keep the area of skin dry for 24 hours and provide you with instructions on when to change or remove the bandage. You may be left with a pink mark on your skin where the mole was, but this should fade over time.

You may feel slight discomfort or a burning sensation where the mole was removed, but this can be soothed with over-the-counter pain medication. You can also apply an antibiotic ointment to promote healing. 

It’s essential to keep the area covered when you’re in bright sunlight as sunburn may permanently darken the wound, which will make the scar more noticeable. 

Mole Excision

Some moles, especially larger ones, may need to be cut away via an excision. This procedure is performed under local anaesthetic and requires a small stitch in the skin afterwards.

Also known as a full-thickness skin excision, mole excision removes unwanted moles down to the subcutaneous fat (deepest layer), which means the growth will be unable to return.

 This procedure usually only requires a local anaesthetic, the whole mole and a small amount of skin area will be removed, and the mole will be sent away to be reviewed by specialists in a laboratory.  

Mole Excision Healing Time 

Your wound may need a small number of stitches to close the wound, and the area will be wrapped with a sterilised bandage.  A small scar will be left, which will fade over time.

You should be able to return to work the following day after your procedure unless your work puts a strain on the area that has been stitched. Then, depending on the stitches, you may need to return to have your stitches removed. 

Getting Your Moles Checked

Inspecting your moles can be pretty tricky, especially if the moles have developed in hard to see areas like the shoulders, back, and back of your legs. Getting your moles mapped allows you to check your moles quickly and effectively. 

Spotting your mole early can save your life. There is a 99%, 5-year survival rate for patients whose melanoma is detected early. This drops to 66% if cancer has reached the lymph nodes, 27% if it has already spread to distant organs. 

Sk:n clinics offer all of these treatments to remove moles. 

Key Takeaways

Find your nearest clinic and arrange a consultation with one of our dermatologists for advice on how and when to remove your mole(s).

 

Rosacea is a  chronic skin condition that mainly affects the face, causing facial redness across the cheeks, nose, chin, and forehead. Rosacea is a common yet long-term condition, predominantly affecting women, though the symptoms can often be worse when found in men and those with lighter skin. 

As well as the usual redness, rosacea can cause thread veins, thickening of the skin and excess, bumpy tissue, especially around the nose, as well as spots

The cure for rosacea is unknown, but treatment can help to control or minimise the symptoms. Read on to discover more about rosacea and its treatments. 

Rosacea Classification

The different kinds of rosacea are lesser-known, many people with rosacea think there is just the usual flushing or redness, but there are actually four types. Understanding the differences between them can help you find the best rosacea treatment. 

The four kinds of rosacea are: 

As everyone is different, people can experience symptoms of more than one type of rosacea, which means  you may experience a mix of symptoms from each kind. Your symptoms may also change or develop over time. 

Discover all about the different subtypes of rosacea here. 

Dealing With Rosacea 

If you’re struggling with rosacea, you may have noticed particular food, temperatures, emotions, or activities have caused your rosacea to flare up. These are rosacea triggers. Understanding your rosacea triggers can help you reduce your flare-ups, prevent your rosacea from worsening further, and it can enable you to get better results from your treatments. 

Repeated flare-ups can make rosacea more challenging to treat; some patients have even noticed treatments have lost efficacy as time goes on. Here are some of the most common triggers for rosacea, so you know what to watch out for. 

If you’re unsure what your triggers are, keeping a journal or digital diary to determine what may be causing flare-ups will help you get them under control. Read our guide on rosacea triggers here. 

You may also have genetic predispositions to rosacea. Those at a higher risk of developing rosacea include those who:

Rosacea’s Link To Other Conditions

Research by the National Rosacea Society has found various medical conditions that may be more common in those with rosacea. This study found that if you have rosacea, you may be at higher risk for the following: 

Though more research is needed, learning more about these connections could help researchers understand the underlying causes of rosacea, and, in turn, identify new treatments. 

How To Treat Rosacea 

It’s important to know which symptoms of rosacea you have in order to choose your treatment effectively. Our clinics provide expert rosacea treatments that can help with persistent redness and work to reduce the signs of this condition visibly. 

We offer the following methods of rosacea treatment:

For patients with visible blood vessels, laser treatment can be used to shrink them. This treatment uses brief pulses of light energy that target only the blood vessel, leaving the surrounding skin unharmed.

Skin peels help rosacea by exfoliating the top layers of skin, speeding up skin renewal and cell turnover, whilst preventing pores from becoming clogged with dead skin cells, which can aggravate rosacea. They can also help to reduce inflammation and promote skin healing.

There is a range of oral and topical medications available, which are capable of treating the redness, pimples, and bumps associated with rosacea. Such treatments are usually prescribed to gain immediate control over the condition, and subsequent long-term use of topical therapy is advised to maintain remission.

A gentle skincare routine can be invaluable in helping to control rosacea. In general, non-irritating skincare products are advisable, and protection from sun exposure by using a solid sunscreen also helps. Discover our skincare tips to help with rosacea here. 

Other treatments for rosacea include oral antibiotics. However, it is best to avoid over-the-counter medications and creams as scented, oil-based and alcohol-based products can often worsen the condition.  

Key Takeaways 

Find your nearest clinic and arrange a consultation with one of our dermatologists for advice on how to manage rosacea and related symptoms.

Rosacea is a long-term, incurable, and chronic skin condition that affects the face, causing redness across the cheeks, nose, chin, and forehead. As well as redness, rosacea can cause thread veins, thickening of the skin and excess, bumpy tissue, especially around the nose, including papules, pustules and spots

Rosacea is a common condition, primarily affecting women and those with lighter skin, but the symptoms can often be worse when found in men. Rosacea treatment can help to control or minimise the condition’s symptoms. 

One of the most popular rosacea treatments is lasers, lights and IPLs. You’re most likely to be treated with laser or light therapy if you experience visible blood vessels or thickening skin, but this treatment can work to treat a wide range of rosacea. 

Read on to discover more about laser treatments for rosacea. 

What Kind Of Lasers Treat Rosacea 

Different laser treatments work to combat different symptoms of rosacea, from redness and visible blood vessels to thickening of the skin and acne

These lasers are called ablative lasers; they work to reshape your nose or other parts of your face that have been scarred by rosacea inflammation. 

This laser works to target visible blood vessels or thread veins. It can also correct excess tissue that can make the nose bulbous, treating papulopustular rosacea.

For this treatment, light is pulsed at a wavelength to penetrate visible blood vessels or vascular lesions. Dye is used to make the beam coloured, to reduce the look of redness and inflammation. 

This treatment is also known as V-Star, V Beam, and Cynosure. 

Intense pulsed light therapy is a kind of laser therapy, but instead of using a single laser to focus on your skin, it uses several wavelengths of light at the same time. 

This treatment works to get rid of unwanted redness, pigment, or uneven areas of skin tone. Many have found IPL for rosacea is just as effective as laser treatment for specific symptoms of the condition. 

What Results Can I Expect From Laser & Light Therapy? 

When lasers and light have been used to treat visible blood vessels from rosacea, most patients usually see a 50% to 75% reduction after 1 to 3 treatments, with some patients seeing a 100% reduction. 

Patients who treat their symptoms early will see the best results. These results tend to last 3 to 5 years, as the old blood vessels don’t reappear, but new ones may form. 

Thickening skin may return after treatment, but regularly treating your rosacea with other methods will reduce the chance of this. 

What Are The Side Effects Of Laser Treatment For Rosacea 

If you’re considering laser or light treatment for your rosacea, it’s essential to understand the side effects you may experience. Although these results largely depend on the person performing your treatment, an experienced doctor will understand the skin and rosacea, treat it often, take into account your medical history, and help you decide which laser or light type will effectively treat your rosacea. 

Even when you’ve found a treatment that is the right fit for you, you may still experience temporary side effects after your session. For example, it’s common to see:

For the best results, follow the instructions you’ve been given to take care of your skin after your treatment. Always use sun protection after your treatment to prevent permanent scars. 

Other Rosacea Treatments  

If laser treatments aren’t for you, sk:n clinics offer a range of additional rosacea treatments that work to visibly reduce the signs of this condition. 

Skin Peels

Skin peels help rosacea by exfoliating the top layers of skin, speeding up skin renewal and cell turnover, whilst preventing pores from becoming clogged with dead skin cells, which can aggravate rosacea. They can also help to reduce inflammation and promote skin healing.

Medication

There is a range of oral and topical medications available, which are capable of treating the redness, pimples, and bumps associated with rosacea. Such treatments are usually prescribed to gain immediate control over the condition, and subsequent long-term use of topical therapy is advised to maintain remission.

Skincare Products

A gentle skincare routine can be invaluable in helping to control rosacea. In general, non-irritating skincare products are advisable, and protection from sun exposure by using a solid sunscreen also helps. Discover our skincare tips to help with rosacea here. 

Other treatments for rosacea include oral antibiotics. However, it is best to avoid over-the-counter medications and creams as scented, oil-based and alcohol-based products can often worsen the condition.  

Key Takeaways 

Find your nearest clinic and arrange a consultation with one of our dermatologists for advice on how to manage redness and rosacea.

Rosacea is an ongoing, incurable chronic skin condition that causes your face to flush red. It can also come out in acne-like spots on your forehead, cheek, nose, and chin. Ocular Rosacea is the fourth subtype of rosacea that affects the eye area.

Rosacea around the eyes often comes with symptoms of the other subtypes of rosacea, but understanding ocular rosacea can help you find the best treatment. We have outlined the symptoms, signs, and treatments for this condition here to help you decide your next steps. 

Symptoms Of Ocular Rosacea 

The signs and symptoms of ocular rosacea can develop before other signs of rosacea appear, occur together, or develop independently. This subtype is common in people with pre-existing skin rosacea, but you can develop ocular rosacea without any other parts of your skin being affected.

Skin rosacea usually affects more women than men, but ocular rosacea affects men and women equally. All kinds of rosacea are more common in fair-skinned people and those between 30 and 50 years of age.

You can have multiple forms of rosacea; and the symptoms can vary widely, with some types having dominance over others.  

 Symptoms of ocular rosacea may include:

Blepharitis is the inflammation of the eyelids commonly occurring when glands near the eyelashes become clogged. 

Ocular rosacea may affect the cornea of the eyeball, especially if you have dry eyes, causing the cornea to become inflamed and damaged. This could potentially make the cornea vulnerable to infections that could threaten eyesight. 

Causes Of Ocular Rosacea

The exact cause of ocular rosacea, as with skin rosacea, is still unknown, though it is thought it may be due to one or more of the following factors:

Your environment or habits can also trigger a flare-up of ocular rosacea; these include:

Diagnosing Ocular Rosacea

It is essential to seek a professional if you develop ocular rosacea to avoid potential vision issues or loss. There aren’t specific tests or procedures to diagnose ocular rosacea, instead, your doctor or nurse will make a diagnosis based on your symptoms and an examination of your eyes, eyelids, and the skin on your face. 

Ocular rosacea is often undiagnosed in those who don’t have skin problems associated with rosacea, but the two conditions don’t always come together. If you have skin rosacea, it’s important to get regular eye exams as these two conditions often go hand-in-hand.

Treating Ocular Rosacea

Rosacea isn’t curable, but you can control the symptoms through treatments.  It’s important to decipher what symptoms of rosacea you have in order to choose your treatment effectively. You can read our blog dedicated to the different types of rosacea and their corresponding treatments to learn more. 

Sk:n clinics provide expert treatments that can help persistent redness and work to visibly reduce the signs of this condition. The best rosacea treatment will depend on your particular variations of symptoms. We offer the following methods of rosacea treatment:

For patients with visible blood vessels, laser treatment can be used to shrink them. This treatment uses brief pulses of light energy that target only the blood vessel, leaving the surrounding skin unharmed.

Skin peels help rosacea by exfoliating the top layers of skin, speeding up skin renewal and cell turnover, whilst preventing pores from becoming clogged with dead skin cells, which can aggravate rosacea. They can also help to reduce inflammation and promote skin healing.

There is a range of oral and topical medications available, and these are capable of treating the redness, pimples, and bumps associated with rosacea. Such treatments are usually prescribed to gain immediate control over the condition, and subsequent long-term use of topical therapy is advised to maintain remission.

A gentle skin care routine can be invaluable in helping to control rosacea. In general, non-irritating skin care products are advisable, and protection from sun exposure by using a solid sunscreen also helps. Your practitioner can create a product pack unique to your concerns.

Other treatments for ocular rosacea include over the counter eye drops to prevent dry eyes, but be careful to avoid eye drops that have been formulated to clear up red-eye, as these products can worsen your symptoms. Scented, oil-based, and alcohol-based products can often aggravate the condition.  

Key Takeaways

Need Help?

Find your nearest clinic and arrange a consultation with one of our dermatologists for advice on how to manage redness and rosacea. 

Rosacea is a long-term, chronic skin condition that mainly affects the face, causing facial redness across the cheeks, nose, chin, and forehead. Rosacea is a common condition, primarily affecting women and those with lighter skin, but the symptoms can often be worse when found in men. 

Alongside redness, a rosacea rash can cause thread veins, thickening of the skin and excess, bumpy tissue, especially around the nose, as well as papules, pustules and spots

The cure for rosacea is unknown, but treatment can help to control or minimise the symptoms. Read on to discover the different types of rosacea and their best treatments. 

What Are The Four Types Of Rosacea?


Many people are surprised when they discover there are different kinds of rosacea, but understanding the differences between them can help you find the best rosacea treatment. 

The four kinds of rosacea are: 

Many people experience symptoms of more than one type of rosacea, meaning you may experience a mix of symptoms from each kind. 

Erythematotelangiectatic Rosacea


Erythematotelangiectatic Rosacea

Erythematotelangiectatic rosacea, or ETR, is the most common kind of rosacea; it causes redness and blushing across the cheeks, nose, and forehead, though those with ETR may experience redness on their neck, chin, and scalp. 

Small blood vessels, or facial veins, become enlarged and visible, which causes the look of redness. If left untreated, these symptoms flare up and then disappear, becoming more persistent and covering more skin. 

Sufferers of ETR may also experience warmth, tingling, stinging or swelling in the affected areas, alongside dry, scaly, sensitive skin. 

Papulopustular Rosacea


acne rosacea

Papulopustular rosacea, often called acne rosacea, is linked to the usual redness and inflammation of ETR, accompanied by the addition of acne-like breakouts; large, painful blemishes that develop deep into the skin. 

Pustules are puss-filled blemishes that appear on the forehead, cheeks, and chin, often mistaken for acne. As with other kinds of rosacea, these blemishes develop on the centre of the face, but they may appear on the scalp, neck, chest, and even the shoulders in severe cases. 

Those with papulopustular rosacea may also experience extremely dry skin; which can become thick and scaly, turning into rough patches called plaques. 

Phymatous Rosacea 


Phymatous Rosacea

Phymatous rosacea causes the thickening of the skin that often begins as small areas with plaques, similar to those with papulopustular rosacea. This can, over time, become extra bumpy and protrude out from the skin. 

With a similar texture to scar tissue, those with papulopustular rosacea often develop a condition called rhinophyma, a condition in which the nose becomes bulbous and rough. This happens when the thickening of the skin from phymatous rosacea develops on the nose, causing the skin to build up and create an enlarged appearance. 

Phymatous rosacea is more common in men than in women and is often the result of untreated rosacea. This is one of the most severe forms of rosacea, but fortunately, it is less common than the other forms of the condition. 

Ocular Rosacea 


ocular rosacea

Ocular rosacea affects the eye and the eye area, causing redness and inflammation inside the eyes, on the eyelids and around the eyes. Those with this condition experience bloodshot eyes, bumps on the eyelids similar to styes, and swelling around the eyes. 

The most common symptoms of ocular rosacea are burning, irritated, and watery eyes, similar to the feeling of having dirt within the eye, along with eye dryness and increased eye sensitivity. In extreme cases, patients may experience blurred vision and photosensitivity.

Unfortunately, ocular rosacea is often misdiagnosed, as medical professionals don’t link vision problems with a skin condition affecting the eyes. To accurately differentiate between ocular rosacea as other eye conditions, look for visible blood vessels, both on and around the eyes, and itching, redness, or swelling of the skin around the eyes. 

What Are The Causes Of Rosacea?


Identifying the type or types of rosacea you are suffering with is just the first part of a complete diagnosis; talking to a professional to understand which of your everyday habits may be contributing to your symptoms is just as important. 

Though it is not known what exactly causes rosacea, many triggers can make the symptoms worse. The most common triggers for rosacea include:

You may also have genetic predispositions to rosacea. Those at a higher risk of developing rosacea include those who:

How To Treat Rosacea 


If you’re wondering how to get rid of rosacea, then the professional rosacea treatments sk:n clinics offer can help persistent redness and work to visibly reduce the signs of this condition. The best rosacea treatment will depend on your variations of symptoms. 

Broken blood vessels are often the cause of the redness, our facial vein treatment reduces the appearance of enlarged, damaged, or visible blood vessels. Thread vein removal helps to restore your natural complexion through an intense pulsed light from a handheld laser device. This targets and dissolves any prominent facial blood vessels. 

Skin peels work to visibly reduce inflammation and redness; they are suitable for sensitive skin and will leave your skin visibly brighter, all whilst encouraging a stronger skin barrier. In addition, chemical peels are a non-invasive treatment both for acne rosacea and uneven pigmentation. 

Other treatments for rosacea include oral antibiotics. However, it is best to avoid over-the-counter medications and creams as scented, oil-based and alcohol-based products can often worsen the condition.  

Key Takeaways



Find your nearest clinic and arrange a consultation with one of our dermatologists for advice on how to manage redness and rosacea. 

Wrinkles are a natural part of growing older, although, developing them at a younger age does happen. Premature wrinkles are a cruel reminder that we need to take good care of our skin to prevent them from worsening sooner than planned. 

Wrinkles at a young age reasons

Premature ageing is the process where the skin’s condition declines earlier than usual and this results in lines, creases and folds forming in the skin at a younger age.

It’s normal that at 25, the first wrinkles begin to appear and these are often prominent on areas exposed to the sun – like the face, neck, chest and hands – or on the facial muscles that are used a lot – like the eyes, mouth and eyebrows. 

In your 30s, you can usually expect your skin to change further and become more prone to developing horizontal wrinkles on the forehead, known as glabellar lines. As your skin matures, these wrinkles begin to look visibly more pronounced and form in deeper furrows and folds than before.

When premature wrinkles appear, the causes can vary from individual to individual, but it is usually due to:

How to prevent wrinkles at a young age

The best methods for preventing wrinkles alter slightly depending on age. We have outlined the most helpful tips for 20s and 30 year olds and the type of wrinkles you have below:

Preventing forehead wrinkles at 20

Generally in your 20s, you have high levels of collagen, elastin and hyaluronic acid in your body, however, preventative measures need to be taken, to ensure these levels don’t diminish early. Some key things to do are:

Preventing forehead wrinkles at 30

At 30, your skin begins to lose more elasticity and may be prone to spouts of hyperpigmentation. At this age, you know your skin well, you’re wearing SPF daily and you have a jade roller, but you still have forehead lines. The most recommended advice is to finely tune your skincare regime. Here’s how:

Preventing under eye wrinkles at 20

In your 20s, preventative measures need to be taken to avoid the worsening of eyelid wrinkles. This can be helped by living healthily, using eye smoothing skincare products, tools and non-invasive treatments.

At sk:n we have a range of clinical-level skincare products developed for specific age groups, browse our shop here

Preventing under eye wrinkles at 25 – 30 

Between the ages 25 – 30s, the skin progressively loses more elasticity year after year, causing it to sag, droop and become more lined than before. An intuitive skin care approach can be taken and we have plenty of skincare products for 25-30 year olds. 

As a lot of skin damage has already been done (no matter how unintentionally) – visible, fast action should be taken to avoid any further development of deep wrinkles. As you know what works best for your skin, we can help by recommending a range of solutions to help you match the right treatment to your preferences.

Click here for information on how to get rid of wrinkles at a young age or have a consultation with one of our dermatologists for an expert-led conversation on premature wrinkles and what to do.     

Key takeaways

The most important thing when it comes to treating wrinkles is having the right treatment that will make the biggest impact. To our practitioners, wrinkles are just wrinkles, and deeper, more prominent wrinkles can be treated as easily as fine lines. Before booking a treatment plan to target deep wrinkles and fine lines, it’s helpful to know why some wrinkles are deeper than others and how they occur. 

Wrinkles are your body’s way of showing you your skin is ageing. They are caused by gradual dermal shifts in the skin’s foundation. There are three layers that make up the skin, and ageing noticeably affects the first two layers: the epidermis and dermis. The epidermis is the skin’s surface that visibly shows lines and wrinkles, but the dermis is where the structural changes occur that cause them. 

skin anatomy

The dermal layer of skin is a dense, elastic tissue made mostly from collagen and elastin. It is responsible for giving the skin its strength, flexibility and reliance. However, each year collagen and elastin levels diminish by 1% which causes the skin to lose volume, sag, crease and have less ability to spring back into place. Wrinkles are often exacerbated by sun exposure, smoking, pollution and repeated facial expressions too. 

skin anatomy

Fine lines and wrinkles difference

There are two types of wrinkles: dynamic and static wrinkles. Dynamic wrinkles are the fine, surface-level wrinkles that are caused when the facial muscles are contracted and usually fade once they’re relaxed.

Static wrinkles, on the other hand, are present even when the muscles are not moving. These lines are deeper and can become more pronounced with age. Fine lines generally become static wrinkles over time and by targeting them early on, you can help to slow the progression of deep wrinkles. 

Best treatments for fine lines

As fine lines are usually mild and close to the skin’s surface, there is a range of non-invasive, epidermal treatments that can help to significantly improve their appearance. These treatments are also effective to have alongside deep wrinkle treatments. Some of the best ones are:

Best treatment for deep wrinkles 

Deep wrinkles can be reduced using the same treatments outlined above, however a more concentrated approach would be more effective in completely eradicating their appearance.  

For deep wrinkles treatment, we recommend the following:

Anti-ageing injectables

Injectables are extremely fast, convenient and effective treatments for smoothing deep set wrinkles across the mouth, eyes and forehead. They act almost like a deep wrinkle filler made from the naturally occurring hyaluronic acid, to physically fill the space between the furrow and the skin, and calm overactive muscles. The filler binds to the muscle receptors temporarily, causing the muscles to relax and leave you with a smoother complexion. There are many anti-ageing injectables available, from Botox® to Sculptra™.

Dermal fillers

Another way to target deep wrinkles and fine lines. This type of filler works to restore volume, smooth lines and lift sunken areas of the face. This treatment is especially helpful in targeting deep eye wrinkles (known as tear trough treatment) sunken cheeks, prominent glabellar lines and mouth lines. Dermal fillers also have contouring abilities which can help you create a more defined look – with natural looking results. 

At sk:n, we endorse the world-renowned brand Juvéderm®. Juvéderm is different from other fillers because of its patented technology, and similarly to our anti-injectable treatments, it is mainly formulated of hyaluronic acid. 

Hyaluronic acid has incredible water retention abilities, and whilst it is able to keep the skin firm and plump, it can also hold over double of its weight in water to keep the dermis hydrated.

Juvéderm is special because it ensures natural looking beauty. Looking ‘frozen’ is a fear of many when undergoing injectable treatments, but Juvéderm works to blend into the skin’s tissue seamlessly, ensuring your wrinkles are removed – without the obviousness of having work done.*

Sculptra™

Sculptra™ is another kind of injectable treatment, and it contains poly-l-latic acid. Poly-l-lactic acid helps to replace lost collagen and maintain the skin’s strength and elasticity. 

This treatment differs from the others as it not only works instantly (like all injectables), but it also stimulates collagen production in the six weeks after the initial treatment. During this period, that the full effects of Sculptra™ are seen as the collagen produced will begin to strengthen the connective tissue and naturally smooth out fine lines or wrinkles. As this is a type of dermal filler, it can be used on the same parts of the face mentioned above.

Microneedling

Microneedling is a non-injectable approach, suitable for alleviating deeply set wrinkles by encouraging skin cell renewal and artificially stimulating the production of collagen. It works by gently sweeping ultra-fine needles across the face to cause tiny punctures in the skin to trigger skin cell regeneration. As the skin repairs the tiny trauma marks, collagen and elastin are released to give the skin an immediate plumping effect.  

The treatment itself has many different levels, one being the use of a rolling device (a Dermaroller), a pen or an electronic probe. For deep set wrinkles, we recommend the microneedling pen as during the treatment, a solution of hyaluronic acid, minerals, vitamins and peptides – all essential anti-ageing ingredients – saturates the skin throughout the session.

The pen is especially useful for targeting deep lines because of its ability to focus on localised areas of concern. The treatment’s intensity can also be adjusted depending on the severity of your lines too.

Key takeaways

For everything wrinkle-related, here are all the anti-ageing treatments we have on offer.

* All our fillers are inherently subtle. 

We’ve compiled a list of the most commonly asked tattoo removal questions, from the facts to the myths, so keep reading for everything surrounding laser tattoo removal.


Can a tattoo be removed in one session? 

In some cases, yes. A small, faint tattoo can be removed in one session. However, it is not always possible to predict the number of sessions needed pre-consultation. As standard, our doctors and practitioners recommend an average treatment course of 5-6 sessions. 

Factors such as size, colour, age, density and the type of ink used, are indicators of treatment length and often vary from person to person. Recent developments in laser tattoo removal such as the Picoway lasers have accelerated the tattoo removal process making it less time-consuming.

laser tattoo removal sessions

Can you donate blood after laser tattoo removal? 

According to the NHS Give Blood website, you can donate blood after laser tattoo removal. You are only allowed to give blood once the skin has completely healed which can take around 1 – 2 weeks

Can I go in the sun after laser tattoo removal? 

No. It is recommended that after any laser treatment, you should avoid exposing the treated area to direct sunlight for at least 48 hours. This is because the skin is more sensitive and prone to burning after laser treatment. 

Laser tattoo removal strips away any present ink pigment and has caused, to some extent, some localised skin cell damage. Therefore, your treated skin will be weaker than usual and more receptive to the detrimental effects of UV rays. 

When exposed to sunlight, your skin will absorb its ultraviolet radiation easily which leads to burns, pain, and in worse case scenarios, permanent scarring. 

We recommend avoiding sun exposure, but if you do need to go out in the sun, wear a mineral sunscreen with SPF 50 against UVA and UVB rays, as well as protective clothing.

sunbathing after laser tattoo removal

Can you get a tattoo after laser removal?

Yes, you can get a tattoo after previous laser tattoo removal. However, tattooing over previously tattooed skin does require some patience as the treated area needs to be completely healed beforehand. 

Remaining scar tissue present in the skin is the only complication when getting a new tattoo and may distort the new design. During your consultation this will be assessed for you. 

Click here to learn more about getting a new tattoo on previously tattooed skin

Can you go swimming after laser tattoo removal?

No. It is best to not go swimming after laser tattoo removal. This is because any water and heat interaction, like baths, saunas and hot tubs, can cause reactions. 

As chemicals are added to pools to help maintain the correct pH levels, the presence of chlorine may react negatively with your recent skin treatment. 

It is best to wait 4 – 5 days before fully submerging your treated area in any water, even in the shower or bath.  

Can I get a tattoo removed while pregnant?

Whilst there is no evidence that suggests laser tattoo removal can indefinitely affect the foetus’ health, there is no research to affirm it either. 

For this ambiguity in research, we do not perform any laser treatments on pregnant women. It is best to visit us once you’ve had your baby to avoid any potential risks. 

pregnant young woman with tattoos

Can you get laser tattoo removal while breastfeeding? 

No. We usually perform laser tattoo removal on mothers’ whose babies are completely weaned off breast milk. This is because laser treatment dissolves ink particles which are then expelled through lymphatic fluid which may, in turn, pass into breast milk. 

Can you get a tattoo after laser hair removal? 

Yes. Laser hair removal is possibly even recommended before having a tattoo. This long term hair removal method is often beneficial as the desired treatment area will be smooth and hair free. 

However, before getting a tattoo, your course of laser hair removal needs to be completed and the hair fully sheded. This process can usually take 4 – 6 weeks. 

Can tattoo removal cause cancer? 

The NHS has stated that there is no evidence to suggest that laser hair removal causes skin cancer. However, when wanting any laser treatments it is always required to go to a qualified practitioner and reputable clinic to avoid burns and blistering. 

Can tattoo removal remove scars? 

Tattoo removal itself is not designed to remove scars, however there is a form of laser treatment that is developed specifically for reducing and eradicating their appearance.

Laser resurfacing treatment works to remove the initial damaged skin and encourages skin regeneration.

It can work effectively in reducing: 

This treatment can also target skin concerns such as hyperpigmentation and improve the signs of ageing

Can tattoo removal make you sick? 

After tattoo removal, some side effects can manifest. Due to the nature of tattoo removal, the laser shattering the ink particles of the tattoo which is then dissolved by your body, sickness may be one of them. 

The expulsion process of the ink particles may interact with your lymphatic system, especially if the type of ink used contains high levels of metals, metal oxide and chemicals – which is usually the case with older tattoos. 

The lymphatic system is responsible for fighting infections and protecting against foreign bodies, such as the ink fragments, so as your body flushes out the pigment, you may feel a bit nauseous. 

A weakened immune system may also cause you to feel sick after laser tattoo removal. This should pass once the toxins are completely out of the body, which can take up to 6 weeks. Yet, with each day that passes, you should feel less sick and adjust to your newly found clear skin.  

UK’s leading dermatology and skin care clinic


As sk:n is the UK’s leading skin clinic, we have exceptional clinical standards, state of the art equipment, rigorous safety regulations and experienced laser clinicians (amongst many doctors and nurses) to help you remove any unwanted tattoos.

Find your nearest clinic and book your appointment today!

sk:n nurse